The progressive addition lens (PAL) is a spectacle lens design with progressive refractive power changes across the lens surface to provide sharp vision at different viewing distances for patients with reduced accommodative strength. It has gained in popularity not just for presbyopic patients, but also patients with occupational (office, driving, or digital device) and therapeutic (e.g., myopia control) needs. However, despite the increasing prevalence of astigmatism in adults > 40 years old who rely on PAL correction, no metric is available to reflect the optical variation in PALs with astigmatic prescriptions. Based on recent studies, four novel optical metrics sensitive to variation of refractive power across the lens surface of PALs have been developed. These metrics were used to compare the optical performance of PALs of various prescriptions, designs, and manufacturers. For each lens, the refractive power profile was first measured with a Moire-deflectometry-based instrument.The data was then exported and analyzed using a two-dimensional error map for each of the four metrics. The results revealed significant impacts of astigmatic prescription, providing evidence for the usefulness of these metrics in quantifying the optical performance of PALs for patients with astigmatic prescriptions.
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