Opportunity-related behaviors in international entrepreneurship research: a multilevel analysis of antecedents, processes, and outcomes

Alexander Tabares, Yanto Chandra, Claudia Alvarez, Manuela Escobar-Sierra

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The opportunity has become a central concept in International Entrepreneurship (IE) literature, and there is now a critical mass of literature focused on entrepreneurial behaviors of pursuing opportunities across national borders. However, scholars claim that research on these opportunity-related behaviors should consider a multilevel analysis where the interaction between the contexts, entrepreneurial action, and the opportunities can be clarified. From a multilevel analysis, the present study aims to understand antecedents, processes, and outcomes of opportunity-driven behaviors in the IE field. By conducting a systematic literature review, we analyze studies over the last 30 years (1989–2019). We found that the IE research around opportunities and related behaviors, far from suffering paucity and a weak conceptual basis, is abundant and is broadening its territory and boundaries. This study makes four contributions. First, we extend opportunity-related research in IE literature by considering a multilevel approach that incorporates individual, firm, and environmental aspects. Second, we offer an integrative model that outlines the antecedents, processes, and outcomes of opportunity-driven behaviors. Third, we suggest a definition of the IE field and the opportunity concept that can enrich the international opportunity debate, as well as its theoretical discussion. Fourth, we present theoretical contributions by identifying past advances and directions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-368
Number of pages48
JournalInternational Entrepreneurship and Management Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Entrepreneurial behavior
  • International entrepreneurship
  • International opportunities
  • Opportunity creation
  • Opportunity discovery
  • Opportunity enactment
  • Opportunity evaluation
  • Opportunity exploitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management Information Systems
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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