Online Kernel Learning with Adaptive Bandwidth by Optimal Control Approach

Jiaming Zhang, Hanwen Ning, Xingjian Jing, Tianhai Tian

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Online learning methods are designed to establish timely predictive models for machine learning problems. The methods for online learning of nonlinear systems are usually developed in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) associated with Gaussian kernel in which the kernel bandwidth is manually selected and remains steady during the entire modeling process in most cases. This setting may make the learning model rigid and inappropriate for complex data streams. Since the bandwidth appears in a nonlinear term of the kernel model, it raises substantial challenges in the development of learning methods with an adaptive bandwidth. In this article, we propose a novel approach to address this important open issue. By a carefully casted linearization scheme, the nonlinear learning problem is reasonably transformed into a state feedback control problem for a series of controllable systems. Then, by employing optimal control techniques, an effective algorithm is developed, and the parameters in the learning model including kernel bandwidth can be efficiently updated in a real-time manner. By taking advantage of the particular structure of the Gaussian kernel model, a theoretical analysis on the convergence and rationality of the proposed method is also provided. Compared with the kernel algorithms with a fixed bandwidth, our novel learning framework can not only achieve adaptive learning results with a better prediction accuracy but also show performance that is more robust with a faster convergence speed. Encouraging numerical results are provided to demonstrate the advantages of our new method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9108601
Pages (from-to)1920-1934
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Adaptive kernel bandwidth
  • online learning
  • optimal control approach
  • robust learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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