On the use of limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) in high-strength strain-hardening cement-based composites (HS-SHCC)

Lei Wang, Nazaib Ur Rehman, Iurie Curosu, Zhou Zhu, Mirza Abdul Basit Beigh, Marco Liebscher, Liang Chen, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Simone Hempel, Viktor Mechtcherine

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


High-strength strain-hardening cement-based composites (HS-SHCC) demonstrate excellent mechanical and durability properties. However, high cement content typical to HS-SHCC results not only in high carbon footprint, but also in excessive hydration heat and severe autogenous shrinkage. In this investigation, Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) was used to produce sustainable HS-SHCC. The LC3 substitution resulted in higher energy consumption during mixing and in shorter setting times of the fresh, plain matrices. Although the LC3 substitution slightly reduced the compressive strength, the formation of highly polymerized C-A-S-H gel and abundant ettringite benefited the flexural strength of the plain matrices. Additionally, single-fiber pullout experiments showed that the use of LC3 led to increased fiber-matrix bond strength and pullout energy. Finally, the replacement of Portland cement by LC3 resulted in HS-SHCC with similar mechanical performance to the reference composite, indicating a high potential for using LC3 in high-performance cement-based composites.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106421
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Fiber-matrix bond
  • Fresh-state properties
  • High-performance fiber-reinforced composites
  • Limestone calcined clay cement (LC)
  • Microstructure
  • Strain-hardening cement-based composites (SHCC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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