On the morning commute problem with bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints

Hai Yang, Wei Liu, Xiaolei Wang, Xiaoning Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

128 Citations (Scopus)


Morning commuters choose their departure times based on a combination of factors-the chances of running into bottleneck congestion, the likely schedule delays, and parking space availability. This study investigates the morning commute problem with both bottleneck congestion and parking space constraints. In particular, it considers the situation when some commuters have reserved parking spots while others have to compete for public ones on a first-come-first-served basis. Unlike the traditional pure bottleneck model, the rush-hour dynamic traffic pattern with a binding parking capacity constraint varies with the relative proportions of the two classes of commuters. It is found that an appropriate combination of reserved and unreserved parking spots can temporally relieve traffic congestion at the bottleneck and hence reduce the total system cost, because commuters without a reserved parking spot are compelled to leave home earlier in order to secure a public parking spot. System performance is quantified in terms of the relative proportions of the two classes of commuters and is compared with those in the extreme cases when all auto commuters have to compete for parking and when none of them have to compete for one.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-118
Number of pages13
JournalTransportation Research Part B: Methodological
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Bottleneck congestion
  • Dynamic traffic equilibrium
  • Morning commute
  • Parking space constraint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation

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