On the maximum smoke temperature under the ceiling in tunnel fires

L. H. Hu, R. Huo, W. Peng, Wan Ki Chow, R. X. Yang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

231 Citations (Scopus)


Maximum smoke temperature under the ceiling in a tunnel fire was studied experimentally and numerically. Full-scale burning tests in two vehicular tunnels of length 3.27 and 1.032 km with and without operating the longitudinal ventilation system were carried out. Smoke temperatures at selected positions under the ceiling were measured under different longitudinal ventilation velocities. Two different pool fires of 1.6 and 3 MW were set up. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) version 3.10 were carried out on those scenarios. CFD predicted smoke temperatures were firstly verified by comparing with the measured values at those selected positions, and then compared with the calculated values using the empirical equation due to Kurioka et al. Fairly good agreement was achieved, though the slope of the tunnel was not considered in this empirical equation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-655
Number of pages6
JournalTunnelling and Underground Space Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • CFD simulation
  • FDS
  • Full-scale tests
  • Longitudinal ventilation velocity
  • Maximum smoke temperature
  • Tunnel fire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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