Offshore Wind Farm Modeling Accuracy and Efficiency in MMC-Based Multiterminal HVDC Connection

Ulas Karaagac, J. Mahseredjian, L. Cai, H. Saad

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


The large number of switching elements in the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a challenging problem when modeling the MMC-HVDC systems for the computation of electromagnetic transients. The modeling complexity increases even further when a multiterminal (MT) MMC-HVDC system is used to integrate offshore wind farms (OWFs) with power-electronics-based wind energy converters, such as doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). This paper compares modeling accuracy and computational performances for various combinations of MMC and OWF models. Onshore and offshore ac fault simulations are performed for an OWF system composed of DFIG-type wind turbines and connected to a practical ac grid through an MT MMC-HVDC system. The OWF system model includes the detailed representation of the offshore collector grid and the associated overcurrent protection. The offshore MMC controls include an offshore fault current limiter and fast OWF power generation reduction-based fault-ride-through function.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7401123
Pages (from-to)617-627
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Doubly-fed induction generator
  • Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP)
  • fault-ride-through
  • HVDC transmission
  • modular multilevel converter
  • multiterminal
  • offshore wind farm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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