Office worker response to fluorescent lamps of different CCT and lumen output

Minchen Wei, Kevin W. Houser, Brian Orland, Dean H. Lang, Nilam Ram, Martin J. Sliwinski, Mallika Bose

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes a field study concerning the effects of correlated color temperature (CCT) and lumen output of fluorescent lighting on office workers' perceptions and visual comfort. Four luminous conditions were created and organized as a two by two factorial design, comprising two levels of CCT (that is, 3500 and 5000 K) and lumen output (that is, 2330 and ≈ 3000 lm). Participants experienced a baseline condition followed by the four treatment conditions and then returned to the baseline condition; each treatment lasted two weeks. Twenty-six participants adapted to the luminous conditions in the first week of each treatment period. In the second week they completed brief assessment surveys three times daily using smart phones. Participants completed a more comprehensive survey on the last day of each treatment period. CCT was found to be a significant factor affecting perceptions of brightness, visual comfort, and satisfaction of color temperature. There were interaction effects between CCT and lumen output and between CCT and the presence or absence of a window. The luminous conditions with higher CCT (that is, visually cooler) or higher lumen output were rated to be brighter than those with lower CCT (that is, visually warmer) or lower lumen output. Participants judged the luminous condition with both higher CCT and higher lumen output as being too bright. CCT was the only statistically significant factor for perceived visual comfort and the satisfaction of color temperature. The luminous conditions at 5000 K were regarded as less comfortable than those at 3500 K. 5000 K was judged to be too cool when the higher lumen output lamps were in place. For the participants with daylight in their office, 5000 K was especially judged to be too cool.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAEI 2013
Subtitle of host publicationBuilding Solutions for Architectural Engineering - Proceedings of the 2013 Architectural Engineering National Conference
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2013
Externally publishedYes
Event2013 Architectural Engineering National Conference: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering, AEI 2013 - State College, PA, United States
Duration: 3 Apr 20135 Apr 2013


Conference2013 Architectural Engineering National Conference: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering, AEI 2013
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityState College, PA


  • Brightness
  • Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
  • Fluorescent Lamp
  • Lumen Output
  • Visual Comfort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Architecture

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