Numerical modeling for compartment fire environment under a solid-cone water spray

B. Yao, Wan Ki Chow

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


A mathematical model was developed for simulating the fire environment of a compartment under the action of a solid-cone water spray such as those discharged from a water mist fire suppression system. A smoke layer was induced by a fire in the compartment. The solid-cone water spray was discharged to act on the smoke layer, but not on the burning object. Under this condition of having a stable smoke layer, the compartment was divided into three regions. Region 1 is the upper hot smoke layer, Region 2 is the lower cool air layer and Region 3 is the solid-cone spray. The effects on the smoke layer development due to spray-induced flow were considered on the basis of mass, momentum and heat conservation. Water droplets of the solid-cone spray were divided into four typical classes based on the droplet distribution function. The parameters including the smoke layer interface height, smoke temperature and air temperature, smoke flow rate through the opening and oxygen concentration in the air layer were investigated under various heat release rates, water application rates and volume mean diameters of the solid-cone spray. Effective hot gas entrainment and water vapor production suggested that the water spray should contain a variety of droplet size. In this way, a compartment fire can be controlled effectively through indirect interaction such as oxygen concentration depletion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1571-1586
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Mathematical Modelling
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2006


  • Compartment fire
  • Numerical modeling
  • Smoke layer
  • Solid-cone water spray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Applied Mathematics


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