Numerical investigation of web crippling strength in cold-formed stainless steel lipped channels with web openings subjected to interior-two-flange loading condition

A.M. Yousefi, A. Uzzaman, J.B.P. Lim, G.C. Clifton, Ben Young

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


© 2017 Techno-Press, Ltd.In cold-formed stainless steel lipped channel-sections, use of web openings for service purposes are becoming increasingly popular. Web openings, however, result in the sections becoming more susceptible to web crippling. This paper presents a finite element investigation into the web crippling strength of cold-formed stainless steel lipped channel-sections with circular web openings under the interior-two-flange (ITF) loading condition. The cases of web openings located centred and offset to the bearing plates are considered in this study. In order to take into account the influence of the circular web openings, a parametric study involving 2,220 finite element analyses was performed, covering duplex EN1.4462, austenitic EN1.4404 and ferritic EN1.4003 stainless steel grades. From the results of the parametric study, strength reduction factor equations are proposed. The strengths obtained from reduction factor equations are first compared to the strengths calculated from the equations recently proposed for cold-formed carbon steel lipped channel-sections. It is demonstrated that the strength reduction factor equations proposed for cold-formed carbon steel are unconservative for the stainless steel grades by up to 17%. New coefficients for web crippling strength reduction factor equations are then proposed that can be applied to all three stainless steel grades.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-383
Number of pages21
JournalSteel and Composite Structures
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cold-formed stainless steel
  • Finite element analysis
  • Lipped channel-section
  • Strength reduction factor
  • Web crippling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Metals and Alloys

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