Numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming

Ting Fai Kong, Luen Chow Chan, Tai Chiu Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes a numerical and experimental investigation of preform design in non-axisymmetric warm forming in order to achieve a large reduction in the volume of flash. A titanium TA2 watch-case-like component was used as an example. Sixteen different shapes of hollow preforms were specially designed for finite-element simulation. Their diameters of the center-holes were designed based on the values of the diameters of end-face configurations of punches and ejectors. The corresponding thicknesses of the preforms were determined by the assumption of constant volume. Under the same processing conditions, the diameter of center-hole of the preform should be the inner diameter of ejector such that its volume of flash was able to be greatly reduced to 6% of the volume of the formed component whereas the volume of flash was approximately 25% in the conventional implementation. Experiments were subsequently performed to verify the simulation results. This study rationally demonstrates the success of the preform design for warm forming of non-axisymmetric components, and provides great improvement in the utilization of material in the bulk forming process. Thus, the achievement is a tremendous saving in materials, more than a fourfold, particularly for these rare and expensive alloys.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)908-919
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2008


  • Finite-element simulation
  • Non-axisymmetric component
  • Preform design
  • Titanium
  • Warm forming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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