Nozzle effect on heat transfer and CO emission of impinging premixed flames

H. B. Li, H. S. Zhen, Chun Wah Leung, Chun Shun Cheung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Experiments were carried out to investigate the heat transfer and CO emission characteristics of a premixed LPG/air circular flame jet impinging upwards normal to a flat plate. The effects of nozzle diameter and nozzle arrangement on the heat transfer and CO emission under different fuel/air mixture flow rates (Qmix), equivalence ratios () and normalized nozzle-to-plate distances (H/d) were examined. For the effect of nozzle diameter, burners of nozzle diameters of d = 7.9, 9 and 10 mm were used, and for the effect of nozzle arrangement, a twin-nozzle burner and a triple-nozzle burner, each with a cross-sectional area equal to that of the 9 mm diameter burner, were investigated under different normalized jet-to-jet spacing, S/d, of 3, 5 and 7. The heat transfer rate and CO emission index (EICO) are enhanced significantly with the decrease in the nozzle diameter for the single-nozzle flames. For the twin- and triple-nozzle flames, when the other operational conditions including Qmix, and H/d are invariant, the moderate S/d of 5 gives the highest heat transfer rate, whereas the EICO increases with increasing S/d. Comparison of the flames from all the burners shows that the highest heat transfer rate and EICO are obtained on the single-nozzle burner with the smallest nozzle diameter while the lowest heat transfer rate and EICO are obtained on the triple-nozzle burner with the smallest S/d.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)625-635
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2011


  • Emission index
  • Heat flux distributions
  • Impinging laminar flame
  • LPG/air premixed combustion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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