Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort

Chao Sun, Sau Chuen Joe Au, Jintu Fan, Rong Zheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (im) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30min treadmill running followed by 10min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower imthan control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-147
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015


  • Sports T-shirt
  • Thermal comfort
  • Ventilation design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

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