Normative Profile of Health-Related Quality of Life for Hong Kong General Population Using Preference-Based Instrument EQ-5D-5L

Eliza Lai yi Wong (Corresponding Author), Annie Wai ling Cheung, Amy Yuen kwan Wong, Richard Huan Xu, Juan M. Ramos-Goñi, Oliver Rivero-Arias

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To establish a normative profile of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for Hong Kong (HK) Chinese residents aged 18 years and above and to examine the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and health conditions and the preference-based health index. Methods: We recruited 1014 representative Cantonese-speaking residents across 18 geographical districts. The normative profiles of HRQoL were derived using established HK value sets. Mean values were computed by sex, age group, and educational attainment to obtain the EQ-5D HK normative profile for the general HK population. To explore the relationships among potential covariates (socioeconomic characteristics and health conditions) and the HK health index, a multivariable homoscedastic Tobit regression model was employed for the analysis. Results: The mean index value was 0.919 using the EQ-5D-5L HK value set. Younger ages reported greater problems with anxiety or depression than did older ages, whereas older ages reported greater problems with pain or discomfort than did younger ages. Persons with higher educational attainment and those who reported higher life satisfaction reported significantly higher health index scores (P <.05). On the contrary, receiving government allowance and having experienced a serious illness were significantly associated (P <.05) with a lower health index. Conclusions: The norm values fully represent the societal preferences of the HK population, and knowledge of societal preferences can enable policy makers to allocate resources and prioritize service planning. The study was conducted with the EuroQol International EQ-5D-5L Valuation Protocol and therefore enabled us to compare the EQ-5D-5L values with other countries to facilitate understanding of societal preferences in different jurisdictions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)916-924
Number of pages9
JournalValue in Health
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • EQ-5D-5L
  • Hong Kong general population
  • normative profile
  • patient-centered care
  • utility assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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