New perspectives in free nitrous acid (FNA) uses for sustainable wastewater management

Zhiqiang Zuo, Min Zheng, Tao Liu, Yongzhen Peng, Zhiguo Yuan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The biocidal effects of free nitrous acid (FNA) have found applications in multiple units in an urban wastewater system, including sewer networks, wastewater treatment processes, and sludge treatment processes. However, these applications are associated with chemical costs as both nitrite and acid are needed to produce FNA at the required levels. The recent discovery of novel acid-tolerant ammonia oxidizers offers the possibility to produce FNA from domestic wastewater, enabling the development of next-generation FNA-based technologies capable of achieving self-sustaining FNA production. In this study, we focus on the concept of in situ FNA generation facilitated by acid-tolerant ammonia oxidizers and highlight the multiple benefits it creates, after a brief review of the historical development of FNA-based technologies. We will discuss how wastewater systems can be made more energy-efficient and sustainable by leveraging the potential of acid-tolerant ammonia oxidizers.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
JournalFrontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Acid-tolerant ammonia oxidizer
  • Free nitrous acid
  • In situ generation
  • Wastewater management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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