New functions and applications of Walter, the sweating fabric manikin

Jintu Fan, X. Qian

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, latest developments on Walter, a sweating fabric manikin, are reported. These include the improved simulation of "walking motion", the design and construction of an automated water supply, and real-time measurement of evaporative water loss and regulation of "skin" temperature through the regulation of the pumps inside the manikin body. Testing of commercial garment ensembles showed that the measurement of thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance of clothing is very reproducible with the coefficient of variation being generally less than 5%. It was also shown that, in addition to the thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance, the percentage of moisture accumulation within clothing is a very useful parameter of clothing comfort. The improved manikin has been used to investigate the effects of walking motion on thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of clothing. The trend of the effects of walking speed up to 1.13 in s-1 for the nude manikin and when it was wearing garments of different sizes are reported. © Springer-Verlag 2004.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-644
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2004


  • Clothing
  • Sweating thermal manikin
  • Thermal comfort
  • Walking motion
  • Walter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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