Neurosensory rehabilitation and olfactory network recovery in COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction

Tom Wai Hin Chung, Hui Zhang, Fergus Kai Chuen Wong, Siddharth Sridhar, Kwok Hung Chan, Vincent Chi Chung Cheng, Kwok Yung Yuen, Ivan Fan Ngai Hung, Henry Ka Fung Mak

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Non-conductive olfactory dysfunction (OD) is an important extra-pulmonary manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Olfactory bulb (OB) volume loss and olfactory network functional connectivity (FC) defects were identified in two patients suffering from prolonged COVID-19-related OD. One patient received olfactory treatment (OT) by the combination of oral vitamin A and smell training via the novel electronic portable aromatic rehabilitation (EPAR) diffusers. After four-weeks of OT, clinical recuperation of smell was correlated with interval increase of bilateral OB volumes [right: 22.5 mm3 to 49.5 mm3 (120%), left: 37.5 mm3 to 42 mm3 (12%)] and improvement of mean olfactory FC [0.09 to 0.15 (66.6%)].

Original languageEnglish
Article number686
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • Olfactory dysfunction
  • Resting-state fMRI
  • Smell training
  • Vitamin A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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