Network Equilibrium for Congested Multi-mode Networks with Elastic Demand

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17 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes an elastic demand network equilibrium model for networks with transit and walking modes. In Hong Kong, the multi-mode transit system services over 90% of the total journeys and the demand on it is continuously increasing. Transit and walking modes are related to each other as transit passengers have to walk to and from transit stops. In this paper, the multi-mode elastic-demand network equilibrium problem is formulated as a variational inequality problem where the combined mode and route choices are modeled in a hierarchical logit structures and the total travel demand for each origin-destination pair is explicitly given by an elastic demand function. In addition, the capacity constraint for transit vehicles and the effects of bi-directional flows on walkways are considered in the proposed model. All these congestion effects are taken into account for modeling the travel choices. A solution algorithm is developed to solve the multi-mode elastic-demand network equilibrium model. It is based on a Block Gauss-Seidel decomposition approach coupled with the method of successive averages. A numerical example is used to illustrate the application of the proposed model and solution algorithm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-318
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of Advanced Transportation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Strategy and Management

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