Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary

Yue Ivan Wu, Siu Kit Lau, Kainam Thomas Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor - all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between - this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3159-3176
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


Dive into the research topics of 'Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this