Naturally Crosslinked Biocompatible Carbonaceous Liquid Metal Aqueous Ink Printing Wearable Electronics for Multi-Sensing and Energy Harvesting

King Yan Chung, Bingang Xu (Corresponding Author), Di Tan, Qingjun Yang, Zihua Li, Hong Fu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Achieving flexible electronics with comfort and durability comparable to traditional textiles is one of the ultimate pursuits of smart wearables. Ink printing is desirable for e-textile development using a simple and inexpensive process. However, fabricating high-performance atop textiles with good dispersity, stability, biocompatibility, and wearability for high-resolution, large-scale manufacturing, and practical applications has remained challenging. Here, water-based multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-decorated liquid metal (LM) inks are proposed with carbonaceous gallium–indium micro-nanostructure. With the assistance of biopolymers, the sodium alginate-encapsulated LM droplets contain high carboxyl groups which non-covalently crosslink with silk sericin-mediated MWCNTs. E-textile can be prepared subsequently via printing technique and natural waterproof triboelectric coating, enabling good flexibility, hydrophilicity, breathability, wearability, biocompatibility, conductivity, stability, and excellent versatility, without any artificial chemicals. The obtained e-textile can be used in various applications with designable patterns and circuits. Multi-sensing applications of recognizing complex human motions, breathing, phonation, and pressure distribution are demonstrated with repeatable and reliable signals. Self-powered and energy-harvesting capabilities are also presented by driving electronic devices and lighting LEDs. As proof of concept, this work provides new opportunities in a scalable and sustainable way to develop novel wearable electronics and smart clothing for future commercial applications. (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Article number149
JournalNano-Micro Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • Biocompatible
  • Biopolymer
  • Carbonaceous liquid metal
  • Conductive ink
  • E-textile

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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