Nanomorphology in A–D–A type small molecular acceptors-based bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells

Delong Liu, Ying Zhang, Gang Li

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Recent developments in acceptor–donor–acceptor (A–D–A) type non-fullerene acceptors have led to substantial improvements in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells efficiency. The device performance strongly depends on photoactive layer morphology, as the molecular packing, donor–acceptor interface and phase separation significantly affect the charge-transfer states and charge carrier dynamics. In this review, we start with a brief introduction of the techniques most effectively utilized to characterize multiphase morphology. Then, we summarize recent progress in A–D–A type acceptors, with the emphasis on understanding the molecular structure–morphology–performance relationships. Finally, an outlook on correlating morphological characteristics with photovoltage losses is presented for further improving device performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-123
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Energy Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • A–D–A type small molecules
  • Bulk heterojunction
  • Nanomorphology
  • Non-fullerene acceptor
  • Polymer solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Electrochemistry


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