Multiphase Load-Flow Solution and Initialization of Induction Machines

Ilhan Kocar, Ulas Karaagac, Jean Mahseredjian, Baki Cetindag

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a new method to model induction machines (IMs) in multiphase load-flow calculations. Fast convergence of the load-flow solution is achieved using an iterative Newton method in the modified-Augmented-nodal-Analysis formulation. The multiphase modeling approach allows accounting for unbalanced networks. The IM is modeled using either a constraint of electrical power input, mechanical power, or mechanical torque output. The slip of the IM becomes a load-flow variable computed iteratively while the reactive power is not fixed. In addition, the initialization of time-domain simulations using load-flow solution in the computation of electromagnetic transients is demonstrated using balanced and unbalanced network cases. It is shown that a seamless transition between load-flow and time-domain average powers is obtained when the slip of the IM is formulated as a variable in load-flow and its reactive power is not fixed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1650-1658
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • Distribution systems
  • EMTP
  • induction machine
  • initialization from load-flow
  • multiphase load-flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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