Here, we present three facile approaches to achieve wavelength tunable luminescence in the same host material with single dopant, i.e., by modulating doping level, preparation temperature, and atmosphere. Based on these methods, ultra-broadband tunable near-infrared luminescence with the largest full width at half maximum of about 500 nm covering the whole windows of optical communication has been obtained in bismuth-doped germanate glasses. Wavelength tunable luminescence is also observed with the change of excitation wavelength. Systematical strategy was followed to approach the physical origin of the near-infrared luminescence and we proposed that three different bismuth active centers contribute to the near-infrared luminescence in the germanate glasses. A comprehensive explanation for the tunable luminescence is given, combining the concentration, energy transfer, and chemical equilibrium of these active centers in the glasses. With the increase of melting temperatures and the increase of reducing extent of the preparation atmosphere, bismuth species transform from Bi3+to Bi2+, Bi+, Bi0and bismuth clusters, and then to bismuth colloid. Of particular interest is that red tunable luminescence was also observed by modulating doping level, preparation atmosphere, and excitation wavelength. Besides, the trapped-electron centers in germanate glasses can interact with bismuth species of high valence states leading to the formation of bismuth active centers of low valence states and the decrease of trapped-electron centers. This tunable ultra-broadband luminescence is helpful for a better understanding of the origin of the near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses and may have potential applications in varieties of optical devices.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)