Multifunctional Crosslinking-Enabled Strain-Regulating Crystallization for Stable, Efficient α-FAPbI3-Based Perovskite Solar Cells

Hengkai Zhang, Zhiliang Chen, Minchao Qin, Zhiwei Ren, Kuan Liu, Jiaming Huang, Dong Shen, Zehan Wu, Yaokang Zhang, Jianhua Hao, Chun sing Lee, Xinhui Lu, Zijian Zheng, Wei Yu, Gang Li

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

85 Citations (Scopus)


α-Formamidinium lead triiodide (α-FAPbI3) represents the state-of-the-art for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) but experiences intrinsic thermally induced tensile strain due to a higher phase-converting temperature, which is a critical instability factor. An in situ crosslinking-enabled strain-regulating crystallization (CSRC) method with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMTA) is introduced to precisely regulate the top section of perovskite film where the largest lattice distortion occurs. In CSRC, crosslinking provides in situ perovskite thermal-expansion confinement and strain regulation during the annealing crystallization process, which is proven to be much more effective than the conventional strain-compensation (post-treatment) method. Moreover, CSRC with TMTA successfully achieves multifunctionality simultaneously: the regulation of tensile strain, perovskite defects passivation with an enhanced open-circuit voltage (VOC = 50 mV), and enlarged perovskite grain size. The CSRC approach gives significantly enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.39% in α-FAPbI3-based PSC versus 20.29% in the control case. More importantly, the control PSCs’ instability factor—residual tensile strain—is regulated into compression strain in the CSRC perovskite film through TMTA crosslinking, resulting in not only the best PCE but also outstanding device stability in both long-term storage (over 4000 h with 95% of initial PCE) and light soaking (1248 h with 80% of initial PCE) conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2008487
Pages (from-to)1-11
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jul 2021


  • crosslinking
  • defect passivation
  • perovskite solar cells
  • strain regulation
  • α-FAPbI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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