Multi-Dimensional, Wide-Range, and Modulation-Format-Transparent Transceiver Imbalance Monitoring

Qun Zhang, Yanfu Yang, Chao Gu, Yong Yao, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Chao Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


We propose and experimentally demonstrate a dual-polarization (DP) transceiver imbalance monitoring scheme, which is applicable for the coherent system using square QAM signals. The scheme can separate/monitor various kinds of transceiver imbalances and has technical advantages of multi-dimension, wide monitoring range, and modulation-format-transparency. In the proposed scheme, a polarization scrambler is configured between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx). After coherent detection, the proposed digital signal processing (DSP) modules are implemented to monitor transceiver imbalance based on the received signals. To simplify the DSP modules, the implementation sequence of DSP modules is in reverse order compared to the order in which the sequence of impairments is introduced. Firstly, Godard timing error detection (TED) and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) is used to monitor and compensate Rx imbalances. After compensating the Rx imbalances, Tx imbalance monitoring is implemented. Complex/real maximum likelihood independent component analysis (ML-ICA) and Godard-TED are used to monitor Tx imbalance. Finally, the amplitude ratios of the final output signal and Tx in-phase/quadrature (IQ) amplitude imbalance are fed back to mitigate the interaction of Tx imbalances on the signal power and improve monitoring accuracy. The transceiver IQ and x-polarization/y-polarization (XY) imbalances are separated for the first time by using the frequency offset (FO) naturally existing in the system and the continuous polarization rotation induced by a polarization scrambler. The separation method combined with the reverse algorithm design and amplitude ratio feedback mechanism makes the proposed scheme achieve the most multi-dimensional imbalance monitoring by far. The simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed scheme is modulation-format-transparent and can separate/monitor multi-dimensional transceiver imbalances within a wide range.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020


  • communication system fault diagnosis
  • digital signal processing
  • Optical fiber communication
  • parameter estimation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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