Background: Human heterotaxy is a group of congenital disorders characterized by misplacement of one or more organs according to the left-right axis. The genetic causes of human heterotaxy are highly heterogeneous. Methods: We performed exome sequencing in a cohort of 26 probands with heterotaxy followed by gene burden analysis for the enrichment of novel rare damaging mutations. Transcription activator-like effector nuclease was used to generate somatic loss-of-function mutants in a zebrafish model. Ciliary defects were examined by whole-mount immunostaining of acetylated α-Tubulin. Results: We identified a significant enrichment of novel rare damaging mutations in the CC2D1A gene. Seven occurrences of CC2D1A mutations were found to affect 4 highly conserved amino acid residues of the protein. Functional analyses in the transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated zebrafish knockout models were performed, and heterotaxy phenotypes of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems in both somatic and germline mutants were observed. Defective cilia were demonstrated by whole-mount immunostaining of acetylated α-Tubulin. These abnormalities were rescued by wild-Type cc2d1a mRNA but not cc2d1a mutant mRNA, strongly suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism. On the other hand, overexpression of cc2d1a orthologous mutations cc2d1a P559L and cc2d1a G808V (orthologous to human CC2D1A P532L and CC2D1A G781V) did not affect embryonic development. Conclusions: Using a zebrafish model, we were able to establish a novel association of CC2D1A with heterotaxy and ciliary dysfunction in the F2 generation via a loss-of-function mechanism. Future mechanistic studies are needed for a better understanding of the role of CC2D1A in left-right patterning and ciliary dysfunction.
- heterotaxy syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine