Control of carrier type and carrier density provides a way to tune the physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. Modulation doping of heterostructures can effectively inject carriers into or extract carriers from the 2D semiconductors, and eliminate the adverse effect from the ionized dopants. Here we first investigate the layer-dependent negative trion PL of 2D MoS2, and further construct heterostructures with transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs). By choosing the oxide with different charge neutrality levels (CNLs), we demonstrate effective electron injection into MoS2by TiO2doping, and electron extraction from MoS2by MoO3doping. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electrical characterization show that thicker MoS2flakes are more easily n-doped by TiO2, while thinner MoS2flakes are more easily p-doped by MoO3. Our experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The modulation doping with TMO is compatible with conventional Si processing and highly air-stable. This method can also be extended for the controllable doping of other 2D materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Chemistry