Modified automatic teller machine prototype for older adults: A case study of participative approach to inclusive design

Che Hin Chan, Alex W.K. Wong, Tatia M.C. Lee, Iris Chi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The goal of this study was to enhance an existing automated teller machine (ATM) human-machine interface in order to accommodate the needs of older adults. Older adults were involved in the design and field test of the modified ATM prototype. The design of the user interface and functionality took the cognitive and physical abilities of older adults into account. The modified ATM system included only "cash withdrawal" and "transfer" functions based on the task demands and needs for services of older adults. One hundred and forty-one older adults (aged 60 or above) participated in the field test by operating modified or existing ATM systems. Those who operated the modified system were found to have significantly higher success rates than those who operated the existing system. The enhancement was most significant among older adults who had lower ATM-related abilities, a lower level of education, and no prior experience of using ATMs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of using a universal design and participatory approach to modify the existing ATM system for use by older adults. However, it also leads to a reduction in functionality of the enhanced system. Future studies should explore ways to develop a universal design ATM system which can satisfy the abilities and needs of all users in the entire population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-160
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009


  • Automatic teller machine
  • Technology for older adults
  • Universal design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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