Modelling the probable maximum demands of drainage systems for high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong

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This paper reports the probable maximum demands of the drainage systems in 5 residential building estates in Hong Kong. In particular, the usage patterns of 597 households from 1300 selected apartments in 14 high-rise residential buildings were surveyed and the flow rates of the installed sanitary appliances at the apartments were measured. The survey results are used to determine the probable maximum demands with the 'fixture unit' approach. The minimum required stack size is determined and compared with the current practice for local residential buildings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-358
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal for Housing Science and Its Applications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 22 Nov 2004


  • Design data
  • Drainage systems
  • Flow rates
  • Modelling
  • Residential buildings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urban Studies

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