Modelling sanitary demands for occupant loads in shopping centres of Hong Kong

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This paper presents a quantitative mathematical model of sanitary demands from occupants in shopping complexes. In-situ measurements and interview surveys with occupants were conducted in typical local shopping malls in order to determine the model parameters for their visiting patterns, load patterns, demand patterns and their preferred or acceptable duration for waiting and using water closets (WCs). The model is used to assess the probable acceptance of sanitary facilities towards the acceptable amount of time for waiting at a typical female washroom designed for an occupant load of 600 occupants in a shopping mall. The results showed that the current sanitary provisions for female washrooms in local shopping malls could meet occupants' minimum expectation, while with an additional 33% of WC, the sanitary would fully satisfy 'all' occupants in terms of amount of time for waiting. Practical applications: This paper presents a quantitative mathematical model of sanitary demands from a group of building occupants. This model is applied to evaluate the performance of sanitary provisions at typical female washrooms in Hong Kong shopping malls and to quantify the provisions required to achieve the most acceptable amount of time for waiting to their users.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-318
Number of pages14
JournalBuilding Services Engineering Research and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction

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