Modelling epidemics with fractional-dose vaccination in response to limited vaccine supply

Zhimin Chen, Kaihui Liu, Xiuxiang Liu, Yijun Lou

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop a two-group SIR model with incorporation of proportionate mixing patterns and n-fold fractional dose vaccination related parameters to evaluate the efficiency of fractional dose vaccination on disease control at the population level. The existence and uniqueness of the final size of the two-group SIR epidemic model, the formulation of the basic reproduction number and the relationship between them are established. Moreover, numerical simulations are performed based on this two-group vector-free model to investigate the effectiveness of n-fold fractional dose vaccination by using the emergency outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola in 2016. By employing linear and nonlinear dose-response relationships, we compare the resulting fluctuations of four characteristics of the epidemics, which are the outbreak size, the peak time of the outbreak, the basic reproduction number and the infection attack rate (IAR). For both types of dose-response relationships, dose-fractionation takes positive effects in lowering the outbreak size, delay the peak time of the outbreak, reducing the basic reproduction number and the IAR of yellow fever only when the vaccine efficacy is high enough. Moreover, five-fold fractional dose vaccination strategy may not be the optimal vaccination strategy as proposed by the World Health Organization if the dose-response relationship is nonlinear.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Theoretical Biology
Volume486
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2020

Keywords

  • Epidemic model
  • Fractional dose vaccination
  • The basic reproduction number
  • The final size
  • The outbreak size

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Applied Mathematics

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