Modeling time-dependent travel choice problems in road networks with multiple user classes and multiple parking facilities

Hing Keung William Lam, Zhi Chun Li, Hai Jun Huang, S. C. Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

121 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a time-dependent network equilibrium model that simultaneously considers a traveler's choice of departure time, route, parking location and parking duration in road networks with multiple user classes and multiple parking facilities. In the proposed model, travelers are differentiated by their trip purpose and parking duration, parking locations are characterized by facility type and parking charge, and the decision-making process of travelers on travel and parking choices is assumed to follow a hierarchical choice structure. The model is formulated as a variational inequality problem, and is solved by a heuristic solution algorithm. Numerical results for two example networks are presented to show the solution quality and investigate the solution sensitivities to some input data. It is found that parking behavior is significantly affected by travel demand, walking distance, parking capacity, and parking charge. The proposed model provides a useful tool for studying the complex temporal and spatial interaction between road traffic and parking congestion, and can be used to assess the effects of various parking policies and infrastructure improvements at a strategic level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368-395
Number of pages28
JournalTransportation Research Part B: Methodological
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006


  • Hierarchical choice structure
  • Multiple parking facilities
  • Multiple user classes
  • Parking charge
  • Parking location
  • Time-dependent network equilibrium
  • Variational inequality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation
  • Management Science and Operations Research

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