Modeling the relationship between safety climate and safety performance in a developing construction industry: A cross-cultural validation study

Hafiz Zahoor, Ping Chuen Chan, Wahyudi P. Utama, Ran Gao, Irfan Zafar

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This study attempts to validate a safety performance (SP) measurement model in the cross-cultural setting of a developing country. In addition, it highlights the variations in investigating the relationship between safety climate (SC) factors and SP indicators. The data were collected from forty under-construction multi-storey building projects in Pakistan. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis, a SP measurement model was hypothesized. It was tested and validated by conducting confirmatory factor analysis on calibration and validation sub-samples respectively. The study confirmed the significant positive impact of SC on safety compliance and safety participation, and negative impact on number of self-reported accidents/injuries. However, number of near-misses could not be retained in the final SP model because it attained a lower standardized path coefficient value. Moreover, instead of safety participation, safety compliance established a stronger impact on SP. The study uncovered safety enforcement and promotion as a novel SC factor, whereas safety rules and work practices was identified as the most neglected factor. The study contributed to the body of knowledge by unveiling the deviations in existing dimensions of SC and SP. The refined model is expected to concisely measure the SP in the Pakistani construction industry, however, caution must be exercised while generalizing the study results to other developing countries.
Original languageEnglish
Article number351
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • Construction industry
  • Cross-validation
  • Developing countries
  • Modeling
  • Pakistan
  • Safety climate
  • Safety performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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