Modeling fire-induced smoke spread and carbon monoxide transportation in a long channel: Fire Dynamics Simulator comparisons with measured data

L. H. Hu, Nai Kong Fong, L. Z. Yang, Wan Ki Chow, Y. Z. Li, R. Huo

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

120 Citations (Scopus)


Smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, are the most fatal factors in fires. This paper models fire-induced smoke spread and carbon monoxide transportation in an 88 m long channel by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) with large eddy simulation (LES). FDS is now a well-founded fire dynamics computational fluid dynamic (CFD) program, which was developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two full scale experiments with fire sizes of 0.75 and 1.6 MW were conducted in this channel to validate the program. The spread of the fire-induced smoke flow together with the smoke temperature distribution along the channel, and the carbon monoxide concentration at an assigned position were measured. The FDS simulation results were compared with experimental data with fairly good agreement demonstrated. The validation work is then extended to numerically study the carbon monoxide concentration distribution, both vertically and longitudinally, in this long channel. Results showed that carbon monoxide concentration increase linearly with the height above the floor and decreases exponentially with the distance away from the fire source.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-298
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon monoxide
  • Channel
  • Fire
  • Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS)
  • Smoke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Environmental Engineering

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