Modeling and simulation of robotic systems with closed kinematic chains using the virtual spring approach

Jiegao Wang, Clément M. Gosselin, Li Cheng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The dynamic simulation of robotic or mechanical systems with closed kinematic chains using the virtual spring approach is presented in this paper. This approach uses virtual springs and dampers to include the kinematic constraints thereby avoiding the solution of differential-algebraic equations. A special advantage of this approach is that it leads to a completely decoupled dynamic model which is ideal for real-time dynamic simulation using multi-processor computers. Examples illustrating the approach are given and include the four-bar mechanism with both rigid and flexible links as well as the six-degree-of-freedom Gough-Stewart platform. Simulation results are given for these mechanisms. The results achieve a good agreement with the results obtained from other conventional approaches.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-170
Number of pages26
JournalMultibody System Dynamics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Closed-loop mechanical systems
  • Dynamic simulation
  • Parallel computational algorithms
  • Virtual springs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Control and Optimization

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