Modeling an Elastic-Demand Bimodal Transport Network with Park-and-Ride Trips

Hing Keung William Lam, Zhichun Li, S. C. Wong, Daoli Zhu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a network equilibrium formulation for modeling commuters' travel choices in a bimodal transport system with park-and-ride (P&R) trips while the total demand is elastic to the congestion level of the network. A super-network approach is adopted in the proposed model. It is assumed that commuters' trips are categorized into two types, auto mode only and a combined mode with both auto and transit modes. The former is referred to as the pure mode trip and the latter as the P&R mode trip. The proposed model simultaneously considers the commuter's choice of the pure mode versus the P&R mode, the choice of parking location for the pure mode, the choice of transfer point for the P&R mode, as well as the route choice for each mode. The demand elasticity of transport system, the capacity constraints of transport facilities, and the congestion interaction throughout the super-network are also explicitly incorporated into the proposed model. The results of the numerical experiment show the following key findings: (i) traditional parking/P&R models may overestimate or underestimate travel demand distribution over network; (ii) parking/P&R, transit scheduling, and carpooling schemes bring significant impacts on commuters' travel behavior and network performance; and (iii) different transport policies may be to some extent mutually substituted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-166
Number of pages9
JournalTsinghua Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2007


  • elastic demand
  • network equilibrium
  • park-and-ride
  • variational inequality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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