A modified equilibrium distribution function for the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook- type modeled Boltzmann equation has recently been proposed. The function was deduced using acoustics scaling to normalize the equation and allowed a correct recovery of similarly normalized Euler equations. It is a combination of a Maxwellian distribution plus three other terms that are moments of particle velocity. The lattice counterpart of the modified equilibrium distribution function also led to an exact recovery of the Euler equations; therefore, there is no Mach number limitation in the entire approach. This lattice counterpart was able to replicate aeroacoustics problems involving vorticity-acoustic and entropy-acoustic interactions correctly, and the simulations were carried out using a finite difference lattice Boltzmann method employing only a two-dimensional, nine-velocity lattice. Thus formulated, the numerical scheme has no arbitrary constants and all calculations were carried out using one single relaxation time and a set of constants derived from the analysis. This paper investigates the validity and extent of the formulation to capture shocks and resolve contact discontinuity and expansion waves in one- and two-dimensional Riemann problems. The simulations are carried out using the same two-dimensional, nine-velocity lattice, and identical set of constants and relaxation time; they are compared with theoretical results and those obtained by solving the Euler equations directly using Harten's first-order numerical scheme. Good agreement is obtained for all test cases. However, the modified equilibrium distribution function is not suitable for shock structure simulation; for that, an exact recovery of the Navier-Stokes equations is required.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aerospace Engineering