Microstructure, thermal analysis and hardness of a Sn-Ag-Cu-1 wt% nano-TiO2 composite solder on flexible ball grid array substrates

Asit Kumar Gain, Y. C. Chan, Kam Chuen Yung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

98 Citations (Scopus)


Sn-Ag-Cu composite solders reinforced with nano-sized, nonreacting, noncoarsening 1 wt% TiO2particles were prepared by mechanically dispersing TiO2nano-particles into Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder and the interfacial morphology of the solder and flexible BGA substrates were characterized metallographically. At their interfaces, different types of scallop-shaped intermetallic compound layers such as Cu6Sn5for a Ag metallized Cu pad and Sn-Cu-Ni for a Au/Ni and Ni metallized Cu pad, were found in plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints and solder joints containing 1 wt% TiO2nano-particles. In addition, the intermetallic compound layer thicknesses increased substantially with the number of reflow cycles. In the solder ball region, Ag3Sn, Cu6Sn5and AuSn4IMC particles were found to be uniformly distributed in the β-Sn matrix. However, after the addition of TiO2nano-particles, Ag3Sn, AuSn4and Cu6Sn5IMC particles appeared with a fine microstructure and retarded the growth rate of IMC layers at their interfaces. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints containing 1 wt% TiO2nano-particles consistently displayed a higher hardness than that of the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints as a function of the number of reflow cycles due to the well-controlled fine microstructure and homogeneous distribution of TiO2nano-particles which gave a second phase dispersion strengthening mechanism.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)975-984
Number of pages10
JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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