Micro-voids quantification for damage prediction in warm forging of biocompatible alloys using 3D X-ray CT and RVE approach

X. Z. Lu, Luen Chow Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


This study aims to quantify the three-dimensional (3D) micro-voids for damage prediction in warm forging through non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) and RVE approach. Typical biocompatible alloys, i.e., stainless steel 316 L (SS316L) and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V, were used as specimen materials in warm-forging a medical implant, i.e., a basal thumb implant. X-ray CT scanning was performed for both the preforms and forged components. Volumetric CT images were then reconstructed and the 3D micro-void distribution and evolution inside the materials were detected and analysed quantitatively. Furthermore, three typical local strain regions, i.e., the small tensile strain region (STSR), small compressive strain region (SCSR) and large compressive strain region (LCSR), were established as the 3D representative volume element (RVE) models for both SS316L and Ti-6Al-4V preforms. The spatial location, size and volume of each micro-void were obtained from defect analysis of the 3D CT images and considered explicitly for subsequent damage prediction. An improved thermo-mechanical coupled micromechanics-based damage (micro-damage) model, which considered the variation of volume fraction of micro-voids (VFMVs), was implemented into finite element (FE) package ABAQUS for localized damage prediction of the RVE models. The damage distributions of the RVE models at different strain levels were visualized and identified. Finally, the localized damage evolutions at both compressive and tensile deformations were predicted and found to match quite well with the findings acquired from CT scanning. Thus, the application of non-destructive X-ray CT measurement of micro-voids, incorporating the RVE approach, was able to play a significant role leading to a more reliable damage prediction in the warm forging process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-127
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018


  • Biocompatible alloys
  • Damage prediction
  • Micro-voids
  • Representative volume element
  • Warm forging
  • X-ray computed tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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