Mechanical and microstructural characterization of bio-concrete prepared with optimized alternative green binders

Muhammad Riaz Ahmad, Bing Chen, Syed Farasat Ali Shah

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Due to their high alkaline natrure, ordinary Portland cement and lime based traditional binders show poor compatibility with the bio-aggregates. As a results, produced bio-concretes show prolonged setting time, poor mechanical and durability properties. In order to use the traditional binders in preparing the bio-concrete, the use of expensive treatment methods to improve bio-comptability of these binders become inevitable. In this regards, this research aims to solve the bio-compatibility issues of traditional binders and develop new green binders to prepare bio-concrete. In the first part, mechanical and chemical characterization (through XRD, DTG/TGA and SEM) of Portland cement (OPC), geopolymer (GP) and magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) binders was carried out. Optimized binders from each group were then further used to produce bio-concretes. In the second part, influence of type of binder and pretreament on the properties of bio-concrete was examined. It was observed that hydrophobic treatment was most efficient and increased the amount of hydration products (studied through XRD, FTIR and SEM) and bio-compatibility of OPC and GP binders. However, MPC binder was naturally compatible with the bio-aggregates due to its low pH value and do not necessarily demand any pretreatment of bio-aggregate. It was concluded that, MPC based bio-concrete shows high performance as compared to OPC and GP based bio-concrete.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122533
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Bio-aggregate
  • Magnesium phosphate cement
  • Mechanical properties
  • Pretreatment
  • Setting time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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