Measuring the Valence and Intensity of Residents’ Behaviors in Host–Tourist Interactions: Implications for Destination Image and Destination Competitiveness

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


While studies have documented the valence (e.g., facilitation and harm) of residents’ behaviors toward tourists, research into the intensity (i.e., activeness or passiveness) for such behaviors and the corresponding matrix that could be generated by considering both of these dimensions in the context of tourism remains unexplored. This research offers a more holistic conceptualization of residents’ behaviors by generating a matrix that constitutes the framework of the Behaviours from Intergroup Affect and Stereotype (BIAS) Map. Twelve behaviors were measured and cross-culturally validated via samples from Hong Kong, Singapore, and the United States: Active Facilitation (i.e., socializing, interacting, and starting a conversation with tourists); Passive Facilitation (i.e., tolerating, accepting, and enduring tourists’ behaviors); Active Harm (i.e., mocking, threatening, and being unfriendly to tourists); and Passive Harm (i.e., resisting, refraining, and being reluctant to help tourists). This research provides implications for tourism policy makers to manage host–guest relations that could influence destination image and destination competitiveness.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • destination competitiveness
  • destination image
  • host–guest relations
  • intergroup behaviors
  • resident behaviors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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