Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity: Validation of the Adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity

Xue Bai, Wing Leung Lai, Nelson W.S. Chow

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM) in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME”) and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSAGE Open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2016


  • China
  • individual modernity
  • modernization
  • older people
  • psychometric properties
  • scale validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)

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