Measuring Filial Piety in the 21st Century: Development, Factor Structure, and Reliability of the 10-Item Contemporary Filial Piety Scale

Terry Y.S. Lum, Chau Wai Elsie Yan, Andy H.Y. Ho, Michelle H.Y. Shum, Gloria H.Y. Wong, Mandy M.Y. Lau, Junfang Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


The experience and practice of filial piety have evolved in modern Chinese societies, and existing measures fail to capture these important changes. Based on a conceptual analysis on current literature, 42 items were initially compiled to form a Contemporary Filial Piety Scale (CFPS), and 1,080 individuals from a representative sample in Hong Kong were surveyed. Principal component analysis generated a 16-item three-factor model: Pragmatic Obligations (Factor 1; 10 items), Compassionate Reverence (Factor 2; 4 items), and Family Continuity (Factor 3; 2 items). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed strong factor loadings for Factors 1 and 2, while removing Factor 3 and conceptually duplicated items increased total variance explained from 58.02% to 60.09% and internal consistency from.84 to.88. A final 10-item two-factor structure model was adopted with a goodness of fit of 0.95. The CFPS-10 is a data-driven, simple, and efficient instrument with strong psychometric properties for assessing contemporary filial piety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1235-1247
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Gerontology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • filial piety
  • Hong Kong Chinese
  • principal component analysis
  • scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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