Measuring domain-specific deficits in self-awareness in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury: Component analysis of the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire

Owen Lloyd (Corresponding Author), Tamara Ownsworth, Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck, Jennifer Fleming, David H.K. Shum

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


Self-awareness has been found to vary across different functional domains for adults with acquired brain injury (ABI); however, domain-specific self-awareness is yet to be investigated following paediatric ABI. This study aimed to validate the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire (PAQ) as a multi-domain measure of self-awareness and to investigate domain-specific self-awareness in children with ABI. One hundred and ninety-seven children and adolescents (8–16 years, M = 12.44, SD = 2.62) with mixed causes of ABI (70% with traumatic brain injury) and their parents (n = 197) were recruited through consecutive rehabilitation appointments and completed the PAQ. The 37 items of the parent version of the PAQ were subjected to a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. A five-component solution (29 items) explained 64% of the variance in the PAQ items. Components revealed five domains of self-awareness: socio-emotional functioning, activities of daily living (ADLs), cognition, physical functioning, and communication. Internal consistency of the components ranged from acceptable to excellent (α =.70–.95). The analysis identified that children had poorer self-awareness of cognitive functioning than socio-emotional functioning, ADLs, and communication skills. Overall, the findings identify five components (i.e., functional domains) of self-awareness and provide some support that self-awareness varies across domains following paediatric ABI.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeuropsychological Rehabilitation
Publication statusPublished - 12 May 2021


  • Acquired brain injury
  • Adolescents
  • Children
  • Metacognition
  • Self-awareness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Rehabilitation
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology

Cite this