Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: An overview

Faming Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)473-484
Number of pages12
JournalIndustrial Health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Apparent evaporative resistance
  • Heat stress
  • Maximum evaporative capacity
  • Sweating
  • Thermal manikin
  • “Heat pipe” effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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