Measurement invariance across educational levels and gender in 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on caregivers of people with dementia

Chung-Ying Lin, Li Jung Elizabeth Ku, Amir H. Pakpour

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) is a commonly used self-report to assess caregiver burden. A 12-item short form of the ZBI has been developed; however, its measurement invariance has not been examined across some different demographics. It is unclear whether different genders and educational levels of a population interpret the ZBI items similarly. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the 12-item ZBI across gender and educational levels in a Taiwanese sample. Methods: Caregivers who had a family member with dementia (n = 270) completed the ZBI through telephone interviews. Three confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were conducted: Model 1 was the configural model, Model 2 constrained all factor loadings, Model 3 constrained all factor loadings and item intercepts. Multiple group CFAs and the differential item functioning (DIF) contrast under Rasch analyses were used to detect measurement invariance across males (n = 100) and females (n = 170) and across educational levels of junior high schools and below (n = 86) and senior high schools and above (n = 183). Results: The fit index differences between models supported the measurement invariance across gender and across educational levels (comparative fit index (CFI) = -0.010 and 0.003; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = -0.006 to 0.004). No substantial DIF contrast was found across gender and educational levels (value = -0.36 to 0.29). Conclusions: The ZBI is appropriate for combined use and for comparisons in caregivers across gender and different educational levels in Taiwan.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1841-1848
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Psychogeriatrics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • burden
  • caregiving
  • dementia
  • education
  • gender
  • measurement invariance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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