Maximum car ownership under constraints of road capacity and parking space

M. L. Tam, Hing Keung William Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a model for determining the maximum number of cars by zones in view of the capacity of the road network and the number of parking spaces available. In other words, the proposed model is to examine whether existing road network and parking supply is capable of accomodating future zonal car ownership growth (or the reserve capacity in each zone); i.e. the potential maximum zonal car ownership growth that generates the road traffic within the network capacity and parking space constraints. In the proposed model, the vehicular trip production and attraction are dependent on the car ownership, available parking spaces and the accessibility measures by traffic zones. The model is formulated as a bi-level programming problem. The lower-level problem is an equilibrium trip distribution/assignment problem, while the upper-level problem is to maximize the sum of zonal car ownership by considering travellers' route and destination choice behaviour and satisfying the network capacity and parking space constraints. A sensitivity analysis based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the proposed bi-level car ownership problem and is illustrated with a numerical example.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-170
Number of pages26
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2000


  • Bi-level programming
  • Car ownership

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation


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