Maximizing space-time accessibility in multi-modal transit networks: an activity-based approach

Xiao Fu, William H.K. Lam, Bi Yu Chen, Zhiyuan Liu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past decades, the impact of transport operating strategy improvements on space-time accessibility, which is an important research area for network design problem, has not been explicitly investigated particularly with the use of activity-based approach. In this paper, a novel activity-based space-time accessibility measure is introduced for considering individuals’ accessibility to various activities and travels in a unified super-network framework. A bi-level programming model is proposed for optimizing time-dependent transit line headways and fares in a multi-modal transit network from the activity-based space-time accessibility perspective. In the upper level, transit line headways and fares are optimized by time of day to maximize the network-wide activity-based space-time accessibility. At the lower level, an activity-based network equilibrium model is adapted to provide the resultant activity-travel patterns as reactions to the upper level decision. A simplified network in Hong Kong selected area is used to illustrate the application of the proposed model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-220
Number of pages29
JournalTransportmetrica A: Transport Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


  • activity-based approach
  • bi-level programming model
  • daily activity-travel pattern
  • Space-time accessibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation
  • General Engineering


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