In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the unbalanced distribution of communication loads often causes the problem of energy hole, which means the energy of the nodes in the hole region will be exhausted sooner than the nodes in other regions. This is a key factor which affects the lifetime of the networks. In this paper we propose an improved corona model with levels for analyzing sensors with adjustable transmission ranges in a WSN with circular multi-hop deployment (modeled as concentric coronas). Based on the model we consider that the right transmission ranges of sensors in each corona is the decision factor for optimizing the network lifetime after nodes deployment. We prove that searching optimal transmission ranges of sensors among all coronas is a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP), which is NP hard. Therefore, we propose a centralized algorithm and a distributed algorithm for assigning the transmission ranges of sensors in each corona for different node distributions. The two algorithms can not only reduce the searching complexity but also obtain results approximated to the optimal solution. Furthermore, the simulation results of our solutions indicate that the network lifetime approximates to that ensured by the optimal under both uniform and non-uniform node distribution.
- Energy hole problem
- Multi-objective optimization problem
- NP hard
- Wireless sensor networks
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications