Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and the risk of adverse outcomes in the offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Grace Mengqin Ge, Miriam T.Y. Leung, Kenneth K.C. Man, Wing Cheong Leung, Patrick Ip, Gloria H.Y. Li, Ian C.K. Wong, Annie W.C. Kung, Ching Lung Cheung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Context: Previous studies suggested a potential link of maternal thyroid dysfunction with adverse neurocognitive outcomes and impaired development of internal organs in offspring. Objective: To review the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and the risk of adverse outcomes in offspring. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Study Selections: Eligible studies reported the association between maternal thyroid hormone function and the risk of adverse outcomes in their children. Data Extraction: Reviewers extracted data on study characteristics and results independently. Data Synthesis: Estimates were pooled and reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). I2 tests were applied to assess the heterogeneity across studies. Results: We identified 29 eligible articles and found an association between maternal hyperthyroidism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04-1.34, I2 = 0%) and epilepsy (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.31, I2 = 0%) in offspring; as well as an association of maternal hypothyroidism with increased risk of ADHD (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.26, I2 = 25%), autism spectrum disorder (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.90, I2 = 63%), and epilepsy (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39, I2 = 0%) in offspring. Conclusion: Routine measurement and timely treatment on thyroid function should be considered for pregnant women.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdgaa555
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020


  • Child development
  • Gestation
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Offspring
  • Pregnancy
  • Thyroid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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